Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Assessing the English Language Learner

Assessing the English Language Learner (ELL) The Growth of ELL (ESL) The number of human beings who speak a language other than English continues to increase in the United States, Canada, and Australia, for example, as the number of immigrants grows. In 2006, 34. 70% of the population of Los Angeles, California, was foreign born; 25. 50% of Miami, Florida; 39. 60% of Vancouver, British Columbia; 45. 70% of Toronto, Ontario; 28. 90% of Melbourne, Australia; and 31. 70% of Sydney, Australia (Statistics Canada, 2008).In the United States, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES, 2004) reported that â€Å"The number and percentage of language minority youth and young adults— that is, individuals who speak a language other than English at home—increased steadily in the United States between 1979 and 1999† (p. 1). NCES added, Of those individuals ages 5–24 in 1979, 6 million spoke a language other than English at home. By 1999, that number had more th an doubled, to 14 million. Accordingly, of all 5- to 24-year-olds in the United States, the percentage who were language minorities increased from 9 percent in 1979 to 17 percent in 1999. p. 1) The number of ESL students in U. S. public schools has almost tripled over the last decade (Goldenberg, 2006). In 2004 Crawford observed that one-fourth of the school-age students in the United States were from homes where a language other than English was spoken. The school-age population (K–12) will reach about 40% ESL in about 20 years (Center for Research on Education, Diversity, and Excellence, 2002). Between 1990 and 2000, the number of Spanish speakers increased from about 20 to 31 million (U. S.Census Bureau, 2001). The Census Bureau report also showed a significant increase in the number of speakers from other linguistic groups, particularly Chinese and Russian. Individuals at all ages enter school to learn the English skills they need to learn, gain employment and participate in society. Planning for their instruction is a significant issue for teachers at all levels and assessment becomes central. In this chapter we first define and differentiate terms such as ESL and ELL and describe the populations they represent.The use of assessment measures to place students into appropriate instructional groups is described and the distinction between interpersonal and academic language is reviewed. The use of assessment in the classroom and as a gate-keeping tool is addressed in addition to the appropriateness of the use of published measures to assess ESL students. The first issue addressed is terminology. Defining ELL Over the years students who speak a language other than English have been titled English as a Second Language (ESL) learners.However, English in some cases is not the second language (L2), but may be the third (L3), the 4th (L4), etc. , language, and, as a result, members of this population have different linguistic resources to draw on. The term â€Å"English Language Learner† (ELL) has been adopted by educators, primarily in the United States, to describe better the notion that English may not be the L2. However, it is not a particularly good term because students who speak English as a First Language (L1) are also English language learners (Gunderson, 2008).The term â€Å"Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages† (TESOL) is used outside of the United States. Students who learn English in environments where it is not the language of the community are referred to as English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students. The pedagogy related to EFL is different from ESL (ELL) because students are not immersed in English in the community and the major task of the teacher is to try to provide them English models (Gunderson, 2008, 2009). An added difficulty with the term â€Å"ESL† or â€Å"ELL† is that it does not adequately characterize the diversity of human beings it represents.Those who use the t erm â€Å"ELL† do so to describe those K–12 students who come from homes in which the language used for daily communications is not English and who must learn English to succeed in schools where the medium of instruction is English. The ELL (ESL) Population A serious problem with the ELL (ESL) conceptualization is that it does not adequately describe the underlying complexities of differences in age, motivation, literacy background, and first and second language achievement (Gunderson, 2008, 2009).Those classified as ELL or ESL vary in age from pre-school to senior adults. Many speak no English at all, while others vary in oral English proficiency. Many have never attended school, while others have earned high academic credentials in the language of instruction in their home countries. They are from diverse cultural backgrounds that vary in the way they perceive the importance of teaching and learning. Many are immigrants to an English-speaking country, while many ELL learners are born in an English-speaking country, but speak a different language at home (Gunderson, 2008, 2009).Indeed, in the Vancouver, Canada, school district 60% of the kindergarten students are ESL and 60% of this number are born in Canada (Gunderson, 2007, 2009). Many immigrant ESL students come from impoverished refugee backgrounds, others have high levels of education and socioeconomic status. Thus, ESLs or ELLs do not adequately represent the underlying complexity of the human beings in the category. Assessment Issues in ELLInstruction in mainstream classes, those typically enrolling students of different abilities but of the same relative age in the same classrooms, is based broadly on the notion that the acquisition of English is developmental and occurs over time as human beings grow into maturity. It is also thought that there is a relationship between language development and â€Å"grade level. † Grade 1 students differ from Grade 7 students in systematic ways. Their teachers design instruction that is appropriate for their grade levels.ESL (ELL) students represent a more complex problem because their English and their cultural and learning backgrounds vary in many different ways, even in individuals who are the same chronological age (Gunderson, 2009). In addition, Cummins (1979a, 1979b, 1981, 1983, 2000) and Cummins and Swain (1986) argued there are two basic kinds of English a learner has to learn; â€Å"basic interpersonal communicative skill† [BICS] and â€Å"cognitive academic language proficiency† [CALP], the language of instruction and academic texts. BICS appears to take about 2 to 3 years to develop and CALP about 5 to 7. â€Å"Hello, how are you? and â€Å"What is your name† represent BICS, while â€Å"Identify a current controversial world political issue and develop and defend your position† is an example of CALP. Teachers are faced with the task of determining what learning activities and materia ls are appropriate for instruction and measurement of learning, while institutions such as universities and some governments are interested in determining whether or not an individual’s English ability is advanced enough for them to either enter a post-secondary program or to have the skills necessary to be integrated into a society and, therefore, be eligible to immigrate.Thus, in some instances, assessment serves to guide learning by informing teachers of students’ needs while in others it serves as a gatekeeper by excluding those who do not meet its standards. Instructional Levels—Determining Appropriate Instructional Strategies Language teachers have for some time opted to assess their students to ascertain their â€Å"level† of English language proficiency. The difficulty with the levels approach is that they do not really exist (Gunderson, 2009). A popular levels approach was developed in 1983 by the American Council for the Teaching of Foreign Lang uages (ACTFL).The assessment is a one-on-one assessment focusing primarily on oral language. Three levels of beginner, intermediate, and advanced are distinguished (see, ACTFL, 1983). A learner can be identified as a low beginner or a high intermediate, etc. The behaviors that determine inclusion in a particular group are usually described in an assessment matrix. The assessor asks a series of questions to elicit knowledge of vocabulary, syntax, and pragmatics. The following is an example of a matrix developed by Gunderson (2009) showing oral language â€Å"levels† and their attendant features. * 0-Level English 1.Cannot answer even yes/no questions 2. Is unable to identify and name any object 3. Understands no English 4. Often appears withdrawn and afraid * Beginner 1. Responds to simple questions with mostly yes/no or one-word responses 2. Speaks in 1–2 word phrases 3. Attempts no extended conversations 4. Seldom, if ever, initiates conversations * Intermediate 1. Re sponds easily to simple questions 2. Produces simple sentences 3. Has difficulty elaborating when asked 4. Uses syntax/vocabulary adequate for personal, simple situations 5. Occasionally initiates conversations * Advanced 1. Speaks with ease 2. Initiates conversations 3.May make phonological or grammatical errors, which can then become fossilized 4. Makes errors in more syntactically complex utterances 5. Freely and easily switches codes More elaborate approaches involve the assessment of English listening, speaking, reading and writing skills, e. g. , the Canadian Language Benchmarks (CCLB, 2007). The notion of levels is an important one for teachers because they are thought to predict a student’s probability of succeeding within a particular teaching and learning environment. A beginner is different from an intermediate in various ways, and the instruction they are involved in is also different.Teachers often refer to ESL students as Level 1 or Level 5, depending upon their performance on an assessment measure. The notion of levels varies widely from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. In some cases there are 3, 4, 5, 8, or 10 levels, which are determined most often by locally developed informal assessment measures (Gunderson & Murphy Odo, 2010). Good assessment is essential to the design of appropriate instructional programs. The difficulty for classroom teachers is that there are few, if any, appropriate measures for them to use. Classroom AssessmentBlack and William (1998) reviewed more than 250 studies and found that there was a relationship between good classroom assessment and student performance. Most classroom-based assessment has been developed by teachers (Frisby, 2001; Wiggins, 1998). Unfortunately, most teachers report they are unprepared to assess and teach ESL students (Fradd & Lee, 2001). According to Pierce (2002), the majority of teachers employ assessments they remember they were involved in when they were in school: multiple-choice, cloze -like measures, matching, and true/false tests.This seems to have been the pattern for 50 years (Bertrand, 1994). Unfortunately, it seems, â€Å"†¦ many teachers are unprepared for the special needs and complexities of fairly and appropriately assessing ELLs† (Ehlers-Zavala, Daniel, & Sun-Irminger, 2006, p. 24). Gunderson and Murphy Odo (2010) have recently reviewed the measures used by teachers in 12 local school districts to assess ESL students. The number of different measures and approaches in use was surprising. The Idea Proficiency Test (IPT) (see Ballard, Dalton, & Tighe, 2001a, 2001b) was the measure most often used for primary level ESL students.Other assessments mentioned were the Brigance, (1983) the Bilingual Syntax Measure (Burt, Dulay, & Hernandez, 1976), the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test (Woodcock, various dates), the Woodcock-Munoz (Woodcock-Munoz-Sandoval, 1993), the Pre-IPT, the Comprehensive English Language Test (CELT; Harris & Palmer, 1986), informal reading inventories, the Waddington Diagnostic Reading Inventory (Waddington, 2000), the Alberta Diagnostic Reading Inventory, the SLEP, the Gap (McLeod & McLeod, 1990), PM Benchmarks (a system for placing students in leveled books), the RAD (Reading Achievement District—a local assessment measure), the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT; Dunn & Dunn, 1997), and a variety of locally developed listening, speaking, reading, and writing assessments. A serious difficulty is that most of these measures were not designed to provide ESL instructional levels so different heuristics in different districts were developed to translate them into levels.The designation â€Å"beginner,† for instance, varies significantly across districts as a result of the measures involved and the number of levels districts chose to identify. Two school districts reported the development and norming of tests for elementary and secondary students comprised of leveled passages taken from academic textbooks that were transformed into maze passages (see Guthrie, Seifert, Burnham, & Caplan, 1974). Scores from these measures were used to compute ESL levels; four in one case and five in the other. Interestingly, different metrics were used to compute instructional levels. So, for instance, a CELT score was used to determine ESL levels based on local intuition and experience.Most often the locally developed assessments involved one-on-one interviews in which students respond to tasks that require recognition of colors, body parts, school items, and the ability to answer simple questions (see, for example, Gunderson, 2009). There are also standardized assessments used by personnel at post-secondary institutions to make decisions concerning admissions to their programs. Predicting Academic Success The best known standardized English assessment measure is the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) published by Educational Testing Service (ETS). The publisher notes: In fact, m ore institutions accept TOEFL test cores than any other test scores in the world — more than 7,000 colleges, universities and licensing agencies in more than 130 countries, to be exact. (ETS, 2009a) There are different forms of the TOEFL. The classic paper-and-pencil form had standardized scores with 500 being the mean and 50 being the standard deviation. There are newer versions including a computer- and an Internet-based version that have different scoring criteria (see score comparison tables (ETS, 2009b)). The online version is based on a â€Å"communicative competence† model that requires learners to view clips of science lessons, for example, take notes, and respond to questions.TOEFL scores are used by post-secondary institutions to screen students for admission to their programs. The criteria for admission to programs varies from institution to institution and among departments in institutions (see, for instance, University of British Columbia, 2009). There is evidence that TOEFL scores are not highly predictive of success in university (Al-Musawi & Al-Ansari, 1999), however, although they continue to be used to do so. ETS also produces the Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC) and the Secondary Level English Proficiency (SLEP), both standardized assessment measures. The primary users of the SLEP are secondary teachers.The SLEP â€Å"measures the ability to understand spoken English,† and â€Å"the ability to understand written English† focusing on grammar, vocabulary, and reading comprehension (ETS, 2009c). The International English Language Testing System (IELTS) is a test of English language proficiency developed by the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (2009). There are two versions: individuals who want to gain admission to a university in an English-speaking country take the academic version, while the other version is appropriate for trade schools and other purposes. Scores range f rom 1 to 9 with 1 being zero-level English, while 9 indicates native-like ability. Different universities require different IELTS scores to be eligible for admission.Both ETS and Cambridge have international centers around the world where students can take these tests. ELL assessment issues and standardized testing are procedures relevant to large-scale achievement testing in the United States. Large Scale or High-Stakes Testing According to Abedi, Hofstetter, and Lord (2004), â€Å"Historically, English language learners in the United States were excluded from participation in large-scale student assessment programs; there were concerns about the confounding influences of language proficiency and academic achievement† (p. 1). However, the United States has seen a focus on large-scale assessments due to the accountability requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (PL 107-110).No Child Left Behind permits assessing ELLs in their first language for up to 3 years, but few states do. In 2005 a group of school districts sued the state of California to force it to allow Spanish-speaking students to take state-mandated tests in Spanish. Plaintiffs in Coachella Valley Unified School District v. California argued that the state â€Å"violated its duty to provide valid and reliable academic testing† (King, 2007). On July 30, 2009, â€Å"The First District Court of Appeal in San Francisco rejected arguments by bilingual-education groups and nine school districts that English-only exams violate a federal law’s requirement that limited-English-speaking students ‘shall be assessed in a valid and reliable manner’† (Egelko, 2009).A lawyer for the school districts and advocacy groups stated, The court dodges the essential issue in the lawsuit, which is: What is the testing supposed to measure? If you don’t have to evaluate the testing, California gets a free pass on testing kids (who) don’t speak English, using tests that they have literally no evidence of their validity. (Egelko, 2009) The ruling was that â€Å"The law does not authorize a court to act as â€Å"the official second-guesser† of the reliability of a state’s testing methods. † The difficulty is that English measures are neither reliable nor valid when ESL students are involved. In some cases, accommodations are made for them.The procedures of providing ELL students accommodations during assessment sessions varies across jurisdictions, but includes such activities as lengthening the time allowed to take a test, allowing ELLs to be tested in separate rooms, allowing students to use bilingual dictionaries, the use of two versions of the test at the same time written in English and students’ first languages, providing oral translations for students, and composing responses in first languages. In 1998–1999, 39 states reported using test accommodations (Rivera, Stansfield, Scialdone, & Sharkey, 20 00). There is considerable controversy about providing accommodations, however.At the time of the writing of this chapter, accommodating students through the provision of L1 assessments has been judged not to be required. ELLs, Assessment, and Technology Advances in technology have made it possible for assessments to be administered as computer- or Internet-based measures. These developments have already taken place with measures such as the TOEFL (see above). An increasing use of technology to administer standardized and non-standardized assessments has raised interest in issues relating to mode-effects (e. g. , computer displays versus print form) and familiarity with computers, which have significant implications for ELLs.There is evidence that performance in paper-based and computer-based modes of assessment may vary due to ethnicity or gender (Gallagher, Bridgeman, & Cahalan, 2002). In addition, familiarity with computers is known to influence performance in writing (Horkay, Be nnett, Allen, Kaplan, & Yan, 2006) and mathematics (Bennett et al. , 2008) high-stakes tests. These issues need to be taken into consideration with ELLs particularly immigrant and refugee students. A related problem has to do with access. Indeed, access to computer and/or to the Internet is widely varied and, therefore, creates systematic differences in access. These are all areas that need further research. The State of the Art of ELL Assessment ResearchAs noted above, the category ESL or ELL is deceptive in that it represents millions of human beings who vary in age, first-language development, English achievement (both interpersonal and academic), educational backgrounds, immigration status, motivation, socioeconomic background, cultural views of teaching and learning, professional backgrounds, and social and academic aspirations. It is not, therefore, possible to review the breadth and depth of available research in this chapter. There are, however, some overall generalizations that can be made. Generally, the assessment practices and approaches designed for and used with native English speakers have been adopted and used with ELL students. This phenomenon is especially apparent in jurisdictions such as the United States where high-stakes assessments have become so important.There are serious validity and reliability concerns associated with this practice. It is not clear that the notion of accommodation, one borrowed from special education, helps in either case. Leung and Lewkowicz (2008) argue that this â€Å"common educational treatment irrespective of differences in language backgrounds† (p. 305) is emblematic of the view that both treatment and assessment should be inclusive. It does not account, among other features, for cultural differences that can cause difficulties for ESL students (Fox, 2003; Fox & Cheng, 2007; Norton & Stein, 1998). Overall, English proficiency is a significant variable in ELL assessment.In addition to the BICS/CALP dist inction mentioned above, Bailey (2005) proposes that there is a language of tests that is a different â€Å"register† or â€Å"discourse domain. † The use of such language creates a problem of â€Å"face validity. † Is the test actually testing what it is designed to test or is it a test of the language of tests? English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students around the world are assessed using many of the same measurements that are used to assess ELL students. EFL students are enrolled in programs in non-English contexts such as Japan where the language of the community is not English. They do not have ready access to native models of English that ELL students usually do. This is very much like the way students learn Latin in secondary school.It appears that EFL assessments are generally used to measure oral language ability such as the ACTFL mentioned previously. Our review of the assessment procedures and methods in use in K–12 schools in 12 school distr icts raised several issues that related to ESL learners’ assessment that were not found in studies such as Bertrand (1994), so we present them here. First, we found that there was a need for a measure that would discriminate students with language pathologies and/or learning disabilities from those who only needed English instruction. District members also expressed the need for a reliable measure to sort out secondary students’ content knowledge and their linguistic knowledge.Lastly, they contended that assessment should be developed to isolate ESL students’ specific areas of weakness so that teachers could more effectively use them to guide instruction. Summary and Conclusions The use ELL or ESL is unfortunate because it masks the underlying complexity of the human beings included in the category. ELL is inaccurate as a term because native English-speaking adults continue to be English language learners well into old age. Perceptions and pedagogical prescripti ons are the most troubling aspects of the use of these terms. In article after article the ESL or ELL is used as though they represent a homogenous group of human beings.Pedagogical recommendations are made on the notion that they are a single group with the same skills and abilities. Of course, this is far from the truth. Our experience is that teachers use the term to represent all students who speak English as an additional language. In addition, they appear to perceive ESL students as human beings who have trouble learning to read (English). And this too, is far from the truth for some students, but not for others. ESL (ELL) is a term that should either be qualified when used or discarded as a general term. The assessment of ELL/ESL/EFL learners is a significant foundational process for teachers to determine the appropriate teaching and learning programs for their students from kindergarten to the mature adult level.ELL assessment traditionally includes measures of listening, sp eaking, reading, and writing. There are three basic kinds of assessment instruments. The first is purely instructional in that it is designed to indicate the level at which students should be placed for instruction. The second type of measure is designed to provide an estimate of proficiency related to norm groups and involves scores such as percentiles and NCEs. The third is designed to provide predictive information concerning how well a student will succeed academically. Unfortunately, it appears that most measures are based on native English models. Another difficulty is that students’ English proficiency has a profound effect on their ability to succeed on a test.It is often difficult for a student to succeed on a test when the language of the test is difficult or unknown to them. Some have noted that the language of tests is also unique. Recently, assessment measures have been computerized and some have been put on the Internet. This raises serious questions of access, especially for students from countries where access is difficult or non-existent. For example, we have been told that the cost of taking an online test in a country like Zimbabwe is prohibitive. Educators from many jurisdictions have borrowed the concept of accommodation from special education to make the assessment procedures fair to ELLs who differ in various ways from native English speakers.There is disagreement concerning the validity of test results as a result of accommodations since they are not often included in the norming procedures of the instruments. We have heard some opine that accommodation is not itself fair, and that the results of standardized assessment provide information about how well students will do in an English-speaking instructional setting. It has been recommended that assessment measures be constructed that are written in different first languages. Some have argued that the number of first languages in schools would make this an expensive and impractica l approach. In July 2009 the use of English-only assessment measures was upheld in a federal appeals court in California.It is clear from a review of existing assessment practices that school-based personnel use a wide variety of instruments and procedures. It is also clear that there is the belief that it is important to identify a student’s â€Å"English level† for instructional purposes, but there is little agreement on how many levels should be identified. The precise process for determining a level is somewhat fuzzy, but it involves the interpretation of a variety of scores from a variety of tests. The research base concerning ELL assessment is not substantial. It focuses on measures originally designed for native English speakers. They do not do well generally on such measures. Indeed, they do not do well in school and a great number drops out, particularly from lower socioeconomic groups.The state of the art of assessment and instruction involving ELLs is extrem ely dire. The issues of ELL assessment needs urgent attention since ELLs are the most rapidly growing group in our schools. References ? Abedi, J. , Hofstetter, C. G. , & Lord, C. (2004). Assessment accommodations for English language learners: Implications for policy-based empirical research. Review of Educational Research, 74, 1-28. ? Al-Musawi, N. M. &. Al-Ansari, S. H. (1999). Test of English as a foreign language and first certificate of English tests as predictors of academic success for undergraduate students at the University of Bahrain. System, 27(3), 389-399. American Council for the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL). (1983). ACTFL proficiency guidelines. Hastings-on-Hudson, NY: ACTFL Materials Center. ? Bailey, A. L. (2005). Language analysis of standardized tests: Considerations in the assessment of English language learners. In Abedi, J. , Bailey, A. , Castellon-Wellington, M. , Leon, S. , & Mirocha, J. (Eds. ), The validity of administering large-scale content asse ssments to English language learners: An investigation from three perspectives (pp. 79-100). Los Angeles: Center for Research on Evaluation/National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESSR). Ballard, W. , Dalton, E. , & Tighe, P. (2001a). IPT I oral grades K-6 examiner’s manual. Brea, CA: Ballard & Tighe. ? Ballard, W. , Dalton, E. , & Tighe, P. (2001b). IPT I oral grades K-6 technical manual. Brea, CA: Ballard & Tighe. ? Bennett, R. E. , Braswell, J. , Oranje, A. , Sandene, B. , Kaplan, B. , & Yan, F. (2008). Does it matter if I take my mathematics test on computer? A second empirical study of mode effects in NAEP. The Journal of Technology, Learning and Assessment, 6(9), 1-40. ? Bertrand, J. E. (1994). Student assessment and evaluation. In Harp, B. (Ed. ), Assessment and evaluation for student centered learning (pp. 7-45). Norwood, MA: Christopher-Gordon. ? Black, O. , & William, D. (1998). Inside the black box: Raising standards through cl assroom assessment. Phi Delta Kappan, 80(2), 141-148. ? Burt, M. K. , Dulay, H. C. , & Hernandez, E. (1976). Bilingual syntax measure. New York: Harcourt Brace Javonovich. ? Brigance, A. H. (1983). Brigance Comprehensive Inventory of Basic Skills II (CIBS II). North Billerica, MA: Curriculum Associates. ? Cambridge University Press. (2009). IELTS catalogue. Retrieved July 14, 2010, from http://www. cambridgeesol. org/. ? Centre for Canadian language benchmarks (CCLB). (2007). Canadian language benchmarks.Retrieved August 10, 2009, from http://www. language. ca/display_page. asp? page_id=206. ? Center for Research on Education Diversity and Excellence. (2002). A national study of school effectiveness for language minority students’ long-term academic achievement final report. Retrieved August 10, 2009, from http://www. crede. ucsc. edu/research/llaa/1. 1_final. html. ? Cummins, J. (1979a). Cognitive/academic language proficiency, linguistic interdependence, the optimum age que stion and some other matters. Working Papers on Bilingualism, 19, 175-205. ? Cummins, J. (1979b). Linguistic interdependence and the educational development of bilingual children.Review of Educational Research, 49(2), 222-251. ? Cummins, J. (1981). Age on arrival and immigrant second language learning in Canada: A reassessment. Applied Linguistics, 2(2), 132-149. ? Cummins, J. (1983). Language proficiency and academic achievement. In Oller, J. W. (Ed. ), Issues in language testing research (pp. 108-129). Rowley, MA: Newbury House. ? Cummins, J. (2000). Language, power and pedagogy. Toronto, ON: Multilingual Matters. ? Cummins, J. , & Swain, M. (1986). Linguistic interdependence: A Central principle of bilingual education. In Cummins, J. & Swain, M. (Eds. ), Bilingualism in education (pp. 80-95). New York: Longman. ? Crawford, J. (2004).Educating English learners: Language diversity in the classroom (5th ed. ). Los Angeles: Bilingual Educational Services. ? Dunn, L. M. , & Dunn, D. M . (1997). Peabody picture vocabulary test. San Antonio, TX: Pearson. ? Educational Testing Service (ETS). (2009a). TOEFL ® Internet-based Test (iBT). Retrieved August 10, 2009, from http://www. ets. org/portal/site/ets/menuitem. 1488512ecfd5b8849a77b13bc3921509/? vgnextoid=f138af5e44df4010VgnVCM10000022f95190RCRD&vgnextchannel=b5f5197a484f4010VgnVCM10000022f95190RCRD. ? Educational Testing Service (ETS). (2009b). TOEFL ® Internet-based Test (iBT). Retrieved August 10, 2009, from http://www. ets. org/Media/Tests/TOEFL/pdf/TOEFL_iBT_Score_Comparison_Tabl

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Nature is such a beautiful place Essay

Life is getting hard and expensive as the years are passing by. The prices on food, and other utility prices are going up. People have school, work and a family to look out for and do not have the time to enjoy the simple things in life that earth has to offer which is nature. In the essay of â€Å"An entrance to the Woods† Wendell Berry. He admits to living such a fast paste of life that is hard to come back down to the ground and enjoy what is in front of him. People pass by things so quickly and don’t pay attention that they fail to appreciate them. Once a person slows down, they could see what surrounds them. Nature is a good way to find yourself because it is easy to escape from the influence society has. Nature has away of taking away the things that are stressing us and giving away a chance to become refreshed. â€Å" In the middle of the afternoon I left off being busy at work, and drove sixty or seventy miles an hour, hardly aware of the country I was passing through, because on the freeway one does not have to be. The landscape has been subdued so that one may drive over it as seventy miles per hour without any concession whatsoever to one’s whereabouts. One might as well be flying. Though one is Kentucky one is not experien cing Kentucky. One is experiencing the highway, which might be in nearly any hill country east of the Mississippi.† (Berry, 88) During berry’s time in the woods, he writes â€Å"A man enters and leaves the world naked. And it is only naked–or nearly so that he can enter and leave the wilderness. If he walks, that is; and if he doesn’t walk it can hardly be said that he has entered. He can bring only what he can carry– the little that it takes to replace for a few hours or a few days an animal’s fur and teeth and claws and functioning instincts. And comparison to the usual traveler with his dependence on machines and highways and restaurant and motels–on the economy and the government, in short–the man who walks into the wilderness is naked indeed. He leaves behind his work, his household, his duties, his comforts–even, if he comes alone, his words. He  immerses himself in what he is not. It a kind of death.† (Berry, 90) We came to this world naked, and that is how we should enter and leave the wilderness. If we walk using our feet and explore the wilderness that’s how we can say that we entered the wilderness. The little that we bring to survive, it is gone in a few hours or days. An animal uses its fur, teeth and animal instincts to survive versus a traveler that needs machines, highways and restaurants and motels. To be in the wilderness one has to leave behind the work, the household, duties and comforts and even his words. One has get out of its comfort zone, and use your own abilities to survive the wilderness. It is like taking a risk of death. Wendell Berry own experience where he is up and left civilization. The work setting to enter a nature environment devoted to being self efficient on nature. Berry loved and respected nature, he wanted to develop his appreciation further, as he wanted it to evolve and understand for it. He wanted to know how nature worked, and learn it’s reason for being. Berry’s goal was met through this act and it was gratifying experience to escape from moderation and become organic. Berry realizes the purpose of the trip, but the connection to nature cannot replace to connection to man. In the essay of â€Å" Why I went to the woods† by Henry David Thoreau. Thoreau tried to produce his own crops, to live from the labor of his own hands, and to get rid of all the complicating things that distracted him from life’s true meaning by living in the woods. †Thoreau wanted time to read, write, and think. He wanted to make time for nature. And he wanted to test himself, to see just how much he could simplify his life, to determine how much time he could save to do what he really wanted to do with every minute of everyday†( Thoreau, 700) Thoreau mentions that he wants to live a deliberately life. To live deliberately means to take care and think of everything that you do in life, and not to do anything just for the heck of it. Everything that we do has to have a purpose and a meaning, and that is not a waste of time. â€Å"slow down rather than to speed up, to saver a few things fully rather than sample many things fleeting, and have time to decide what, in the long run of his short  life, matters most and why.† (Thoreau, 700) â€Å" I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to front only the essentials fact of life, and see if I could not learn what it had to teach, and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not live I did not wish to live what was not life, living is so dear; nor did I wish to proactive resignation, unless it was quite necessary. I wanted to live deep and suck out all the marrow of life, to live so sturdily and Spartan-like as to put to rout all that was not life, to cut a broad swath and shave close, to drive life into a corner and reduce it to its lowest terms, and if it proved to be mean, why then to get the whole and genuine meanness of it and publish its meanness to the world, or if it were sublime, to know it by experience, and be able to give a true account of it in my next excursion.† ( Thoreau, 701) By living in the woods he will be living a simple life away from civilization and to see his strength and weakness. By not being accustomed to that type of lifestyle he might die. When all hope is gone he realizes there are many things he have not tried. The simplest things in life could be and mean much more. Life is precious.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Gastby and streetcar named desire Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Gastby and streetcar named desire - Essay Example These four aspects will form the crux of this paper by providing the blueprint for the analysis of both works. Both Williams and Fitzgerald portray the American Dream as a misconception and, to a large extent, a fraud. In their style of writing, plots, and choice of characters, the two authors seem to be telling their audiences that, in truth, there may not be such a thing as the American Dream. While it is a reality for some, it is a mere illusion for others. In both books, one of the prevalent themes is that not one person can provide a sound definition of the American Dream (Castle 15). Stanley and Gatsby are both intent on living the good life and having all that they desire. However, this ambition also clouds their reality, because, in essence, while the American Dream preaches wealth and riches, it ignores common life challenges that every person must experience at some point in their lives. Both authors also appear to suggest that the American Dream is lived by those who deserve it. This implies that realizing it is only one piece of the jigsaw (Castle 49). Williams and Fitzgerald are convinced, through their style of writing and plot, that the American Dream comes with responsibilities. Both authors show that the American Dream requires sustenance, vigilance, self-awareness, realism, strategy, and prudence, and mental strength. All individuals who want to live the dream must be adequate in these aspects, or else they will be crushed under the expectations and weight of the dream. While Gatsby and Stanley are different in the sense that the former appears be superficially living the American Dream while the latter seems to be actively pursuing it, both men demonstrate that they lack sufficient character to achieve and live the dream. Their understanding of it is warped and their actions betray their intentions. In other words, they are not ready for the dream; they desire it but they are not responsible enough experience it. The American Dream

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Grievaces and Arbitration Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Grievaces and Arbitration - Article Example In order to illuminate grievances it’s necessary to build healthy union-management relationships. It goes without saying that it is better to smooth the sharp corners on the lower levels and not to appeal to grievance procedures or even arbitration. Non-union grievance systems as the most optimal ways of employee problems are considered. Further on with the help of content analysis the aim of grievance programs, systems and their methodologies along with arbitration as an alternative for grievance procedures are discussed. Management can bring into challenge claim of allegation from labor union, because the latter may want to get extra-contractual concessions from the employer. Alongside with Chapter 6 â€Å"Grievance and arbitration† from the book by Sloan and Whitney â€Å"Labor Relations†, the article by Bohlander expresses the main idea that grievance procedures underline work-place democracy. Furthermore in the article an emphasis is made on the fact that employee expectations about sincere attitude in the work place are reflected in an increased number of grievance procedures. Arbitration is an alternative for settling the conflict if joint decision of grievance procedure fails. The article â€Å"â€Å"Labor Relations† represents grievances occurrence in collective bargaining agreements. It is clear for everybody that it is better to smooth the sharp corners on the lower levels and not to appeal to grievance procedures or even arbitration. The article shows an example of marriages and insurance contracts as well as an admixing of emotional undercurrents. Lower step settlement should be a desirable one since grievances would be solved on the level they happened (Sloan and Whitney, 2010). Comparing an example from the book by Sloan, we claim that there is a common tendency of ambiguity appearance both in insurance contracts (an example from Sloan) and labor contracts (an example from Bohlander). General conclusion of both the chapter and

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Should Students Have to Wear Uniforms Research Paper

Should Students Have to Wear Uniforms - Research Paper Example School uniforms convey the message that a school is a place for learning. Many schools in the United States and in other parts of the world are at odds over school uniforms. In many cases, it has been reported that students feel that their right of self-expression has been taken away with the rule of mandatory school uniforms. Although students feel that their right of self-expression is taken away from them, there are several benefits of school uniforms. I believe that the advantages of school uniforms outweigh the disadvantages. One of the many advantages of school uniforms is that they minimize the stress for students and their families. For example, parents and students do not have to worry about buying new clothes frequently for schools (Walsh pp. 38). Students are very sensitive about their image and self-esteem when they are in schools. For example, if one of the students starts wearing branded clothes, his or her peers would feel inferior and their self-esteem would decrease (Brunsma pp. 50). The supportive arguments regarding school uniforms also claim that students feel equal when they wear school uniforms. I would support this argument with further explanation. The standard of living is different among different families. There are some families, which are in a better financial position than others. A school is a place where students from different economic and cultural background come and learn. By wearing school uniforms, students do not get feel inferior to others. However, if students are allowed to choose their dresses for schools, they would be influenced by students from different cultures and different economic background. This would result in an increase in problems for parents and teachers. The rule of mandatory school uniforms would make all students look equal regardless of their financial position and cultural background.  

Friday, July 26, 2019

Terrorist Techniques - Ideology Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Terrorist Techniques - Ideology - Assignment Example The new and prospective recruits will have to undergo a number of tests during the recruitment process in order to a certain their conviction to join our group. Since the recruitment process normally takes one to two weeks, we will engage ourselves in robust recruitment process before we make plans on any attack. The new recruit must be ready to conduct suicide bombings and massacres, as these are one of the ways through which we spread our ideology (Hoffman, 2006). Since our diehard members will be conducting the recruitment process, they will inform all the recruits of what lies ahead, especially using Tamil nationalism, Socialism, Separatism, Left-wing nationalism as the primary ideologies of recruitment. All the recruits must understand that we are a legitimate and genuine group out to fight for our rights and the rights of the greater Tamil people. With this in mind, the recruits will register in our offices that are distributed all over the Eastern and Northern Provinces of Sri Lanka (Gill, Sahni, & Institute for Conflict Management, 2002).   We plan to spread secessionist propaganda to Europe, Canada, USA, Australia, India, and Malaysia in order to receive funding and military equipment. Presently, we have heavy military artillery that we recently acquired from our affiliates in Malaysia. In addition, we are currently actively involved in mass recruitment in the Northern and Eastern Provinces of Sri Lanka where we have absolute control (Narayan, 2010). Since we run our own media, police, judiciary, and other amenities in such areas, we have achieved significant success as far as the spread of our propaganda is concerned. Besides, we have also used fear to intimidate suspicious or stubborn recruits. Since we murder those who refuse to join our group, our recruitment department had had the busiest season. Besides, LTTE is the most deadly and most respected fighter group not only in Asia, but

Escape from Camp 14 by Blaine Harden, Research Paper

Escape from Camp 14 by Blaine Harden, - Research Paper Example Shin and after a series of interrogation determines several discrepancies in his account of the life and experience while in North Korea a feature that portrays his inability to gain psychological freedom even after leaving the camp. His inability to gain the psychological freedom is explainable through the analysis of the Stockholm syndrome, which helps outline several factors that account for such reactions as discussed in the essay below. Judith Lewis in her book, Trauma and recovery explains that children born ins misery grow up with the hope that adulthood would present a chance from freeing the oppressive childhood. However, the personalities developed at such tender ages often do not permit the children to achieve their hopes of freeing their miseries since they become adults with myriad trust and identity issues. As explained by the Freudian theory of psychological development, childhood is a fundamental part of human development. The thoughts people acquire in their childhoods become parts of their personality even in adulthoods. This explains the life of Mr. Shin who hoped to become free after escaping from the prison camp in North Korea. Mr. Shin had horrific lifestyle while in North Korea. He was born in the prison camp as a child to two prisoners granted the opportunity to sleep together after good work. He automatically became a prisoner on the principles of being a son to prisoners who had committed crimes against the state. Mr. Shin went without food for days and suffered various inhumane treatment. He worked alongside other prisoners and witnessed fellow children and other inmates die from hunger, diseases and accidents in the camp much to the chagrin of the prison guards. As a child, Mr. Shin hoped that life would better once he grew up. However, this would never be as he later facilitated the inhumane murder of his parents when he leaked their plan to escape to the authorities. Even after escaping the country, Mr. Shin had

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Business Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words - 8

Business Law - Essay Example This paper finds that implied terms, as it has long been considered to be integral component of the structure of employment contract, plays vital role in the formation of terms and conditions that are applicable to the employment contract. The research is structured considering the doctrine of precedence and the employment relationship. An employment contract forms to be the basis on which an employee is employed under an employer. If there is no employment contract, the employee cannot be categorized to be an employee (Bell, p. 27). The employment contract is legally binding relationship between an employer and his employee that defines the structure and contents of the relationship between each of them and it strengthens all the claims to employment tribunals and litigates legal risks and liabilities (Leighton, p. 11). Recruitment, one of the fundamental functions of HRM, is a basic step to create an employment contract and relation between employer and employee and this, if conducted effectively, can ease the procedure of forming employment contract by including relevant terms and contents in it. The contract of employment is very similar to any other legal contract in many aspects. Generally, a contract of employment will be expressed in writing, but this not the case always as in the case of other contracts (Bell, p. 28). It is legally and strongly advisable to the employer to issue a written contract so that it will help mitigate all legal risks associated with employment and also to avoid misunderstandings between both the parties. There can be temporary of full time employment contracts as well in which contract is agreed between the parties that it will end within a specific period of time or it is of unlimited duration (Macdonald, p. 36- 37). The contract of employment may consist of a number of terms and conditions and these can either be expressed or implied. Expressed terms are those that both the parties

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

MIH 521 Health Program Evaluation (Module 1 CBT) Essay

MIH 521 Health Program Evaluation (Module 1 CBT) - Essay Example Generally, it is thought to be important because it provides timely empirically-driven feedback that can influence policy and decision making (Eddy, 2007). There are many evaluation strategies used. The scientific experimental model is probably the most understood. In this type of evaluation, impartiality, accuracy, objectivity and validity become very important. These are traditionally quasi-experimental and experimental designs but may also include objective based, econometrically-oriented, and recently theory-driven evaluation. There is also what is called management oriented systems models. The ones that we have seen used the most here are the Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) and the Critical Path Method (CPM). A third class of strategies includes qualitative /anthropological models. The phenomenological quality of the evaluation context and the subjective human interpretation are included here. This includes the grounded theories. Finally there are also the participant-oriented models. This group includes those studies that are client centered and have involvement from stakeholders (Eddy, 2007). There are different methods of evaluating a health program, based on what is being evaluated. There are two that are the most popular and those are formative and summative evaluations. This further breaks down to evaluation types. The formative method includes such things as assessment, evaluability assessment, structured conceptualization, implementation evaluation and process evaluation. The summative method on the other hand includes outcome evaluations, impact evaluations, cost-effective and cost-benefit analysis, and meta-analysis. There are then primary questions that are usually ask when doing an evaluation. If one is using the formative model, they may ask, "What is the definition and scope of the problem or issue, or what's the question" and if it is of the summative style, "What type of evaluation is feasible" Once the question is formulated, there is a planning evaluation cycle that takes place throughout the process. This is shown in figure 1 below. An evaluation culture or the consistent use of evaluation is extremely important. It is important in both the designing and the re-evaluation of all health promotions. If health promotions are not evaluated, it is unknown as to whether or not they are meting the needs of the population that the promotion is for. It is important to know: Is the program reaching the target group Are the participants satisfied with the program Are the activities of the program being implemented as planned Are the materials and components of the activity of good quality It is difficult to know the answers to any of these questions if an evaluation is not done. In conclusion, evaluation research is important in the social and medical welfare of the public. It answers questions in a manner that allows the change of policy and process and pushes forward an implementation cycle. It helps in the understanding of whether there are alternative needs or whether the program is working. In healthcare of today, resources are very limited and those resources that are spent must be assured as being spent appropriately.

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

MONEY AND BANKING Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

MONEY AND BANKING - Essay Example e pursuit of individual advantage stimulates the country by rewarding the ingenuity by using the powers bestowed by nature to enhance efficient distribution of labour (Agur 2008, p. 67-69). The country should specialize of efficient production of goods. The balanced trade ensures high standards of living. The interventions by the government distorting the market incentives may be unambiguously harmful. The tariffs limiting the trade may prevent the benefits exchanges. The trade balance means that losses are as a result of the displacement of people by imports (Agur 2008, p. 67-69). A country should also ensure flexible exchange rates in order to prevent the decline of the currency relative to the trade surplus currency from other countries. Regulating the exchange rates ensures that imports are more expensive to reduce the demand on imports. Also, exports should be at relatively low prices to foreigners so as to increase the demand for exports. The country should also aim at maintain ing the purchasing power parity and balanced trade (Agur 2008, p. 67-69). Part 2 The Foreign exchange markets are involved with the transactions for national currencies. The existent of such markets is influenced by the incorporation of the national currencies to the economy. In the world, the economy uses different currencies hence the need for the foreign exchange markets. Foreign exchange market is an example of exchange normally used in the international currencies decentralized globally. The financial centers around the world act as anchors for trade between different kinds of buyers and sellers. The foreign exchange markets influence relative value for the different currencies. The parties involved in the exchange markets buy another currency using quantity of another currency... From an economic view, trade deficits characterize poor economies. Most of the countries experiencing trade deficits are involved in consistent borrowing from other countries. Borrowing is not among the viable strategies in businesses. Labour unions consider trade deficits as key contributors to unemployment and it that it undermines the future production. The pursuit of individual advantage stimulates the country by rewarding the ingenuity by using the powers bestowed by nature to enhance efficient distribution of labour. The Foreign exchange markets are involved with the transactions for national currencies. The existent of such markets is influenced by the incorporation of the national currencies to the economy. In the world, the economy uses different currencies hence the need for the foreign exchange markets. Foreign exchange market is an example of exchange normally used in the international currencies decentralized globally. The financial centers around the world act as anchors for trade between different kinds of buyers and sellers. The stance of the monetary policies in industrialized countries has been inconsistent in bringing the value of foreign exchange currency back to its average value. This assumes the depreciation of the policies on the exchange currencies. The restriction of intervention in influencing the value of the exchange currency and the policy on intervention was consistent with the macro economy needs, and this led to the increased conflicts between the monetary policy stance and the use of intervention.

Monday, July 22, 2019

Public Policy Essay Example for Free

Public Policy Essay In the contemporary society, the world is characterized by freedom of speech and expression and also by a market place of policy ideas waiting to be prioritized or given a legislative action. As explained in detail by Hays (2001), analysis of Public policy debates began by John Kingdon (1984) and reissued in 1995. Kingdon critically examined how specific policies problems solutions become prominent. Looking at the policy making process, Kingdon particularly concentrated on the prediction stage and agenda setting ignoring the politics of how policy choices are made. He argued that many individual through their own means may call for attention on a particular policy issue that need to be changed but at the end of the day it is a group of elected experts whom he called policy community who make decision on the issue to be the first agenda item therefore providing the ground for new policies (Hays, 2001). The communities operate as resources but also as gatekeepers. Kingdon argued that collectively a range of individuals serve to make up the necessary policy community or networks including experts, elected officials, bureaucrats, researchers and even government itself. These communities influence the policy debate as witnessed in public policy institute of California (Mintrom, 2000). As a gate keeper, policy community or networks have a role in informal communication between those inside and the one outside the government. The channels are extraordinary open considering new ideas which deserve implementation while deciding on the one to be sidelined. Intellectual resourcefulness as well as determination is crucial in policy making process, Kingdon was emphatic that those who have more resources are better placed to make strong argument (Hays, 2001). Over the years, public debate have dominated United States politics and at times carrying away the policy communities like fad (Mintrom, 2000). The most recent is the Wall Street issue where the Bush administration and his Republican party proposed a boost plan to the mortgage sector including some home owners. The move which was intended to stimulate the economy however elicited policy debate from allover. According to Hays (2001), Kingdon summarizes the policy making process into three separate streams: Problem process stream, policy process stream and political stream. He argues that policy change advocates whom, he refer to as entrepreneurs of change mostly serve to belong to the above mentioned three streams in their efforts to bring popularity to a particular problem and also igniting policy innovation. By doing this they increase the chances that specific policy issues will give rise to new ideas and new policies. It is the problem stream where problems are recognized and identified for action. Both the people in government and outside government at any given time are aware of the social problems that need intervention. However, it is important to note that in problem defining stage much is likely to be left at stake since those benefiting from the status quo are likely to convince the others that no problem exists after all. The second stream is the policy stream which Kingdon highlights as the process which entails generating and debating of ides for policy development by communities of policy specialists. Rarely, people come out with new ideas but more often they use the old ones to understand the new ones and thinking of ways to reformulate them with the others (Hays, 2001). In order to be effective, public policy institutes must be objective to survive in community policy ideas. Solutions in most cases chase problems and that is to say people with solutions will look for the specific problems to solve (Mintrom, 2000). In addition, such institutions must be not only feasible but also compatible with the values of the majority of specialist in policy communities. Alteration of ideas and efforts by the policy advocate to persuade others according to Kingdon is one way of achieving compatibility (Hays, 2001).

New Product Questionnaire Essay Example for Free

New Product Questionnaire Essay As a woman you are created with a special gift, it’s like little extra ingredients that all women have within them. The poem â€Å"Phenomenal Woman† by Maya Angelou, she speaks about the elegance of a woman, her inner being the way she glow without saying a word Maya expressed how men are amazed by her presence â€Å"men themselves have wondered what they see in me† (line 31-32). It’s hard to put your finger on it all women were born with the power. In the poem â€Å"Still I rise† by Maya Angelou she described the struggles of life trials and tribulations you face in society and the way people may judge you. As if she was writing about a woman â€Å"does my sassiness upset you? †She also wrote in another stanza â€Å"does my sexiness upset you? †She used this comparison to show she is a sexy woman who demands respect. Maya’s attitude in this poem is portraying a confident black African American woman. She is really laughing at men challenging them. They cannot stop her from rising above all expectation. This poem gives you not only inspiration encouragement to be fearless; to the end of it all you must believe you still rise above it all. The title gives a sense of entity and power. This masterpiece the poem â€Å"phenomenal woman† has also empowered women to get more in touch with their inner beauty. Maya describes in great detail the mystery of women and the behavior of men and their reaction. It shows women to not only love your-self but to embrace every aspect of your mind, body and soul. Maya show that sexuality isn’t only related to outer beauty, or by the way you dress it more about how you feel within your own skin . she shows you instead of hating your body love it from the crown of your head to the sole of your feet. In society today women enhances their body by doing plastic surgery to feel accepted. She feels inferior clearly stating that every part of a woman is beauty. In comparisons to â€Å"Phenomenal Woman† and â€Å"Still I Rise† both poems Maya speaks about not bowing to the â€Å"oppressor†. You can feel her compassion in every word in Phenomenal Woman â€Å"now you understand why my head’s not bowed† (lines 47). Still I Rise forth stanza â€Å"with head bowed and eyes lowered? †Within these lines she stresses that she will not conform to what society made her out to be, that she will soar above and beyond everyone expectations. The little gives a sense of entity and power. In conclusion these two poems have few similarities; Maya characterized the strength of an African American woman. By using powerful words she described the emotional aspect of inner beauty, standing proud professing no one will ever bring her down not by the color of her skin nor the fact of being a woman that there’s more within.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Has The Traditional Marketing Eloped By Internet Marketing Marketing Essay

Has The Traditional Marketing Eloped By Internet Marketing Marketing Essay This research project compares traditional marketing and internet marketing to show the difference characteristics between them. Also this project is done to find out what marketing tools are effective for some chosen companies in the food industry. The main difference between internet marketing and traditional marketing is also studied in this project. Different textbooks, websites, articles and interviews are taken for the information required in this study. Both the quantitative and qualitative approaches are used in this research. Quantitative data are gathered form the website of the UK National Statistics. The author conducted interviews with three companies operation in the food industry in UK to collect information needed for the analysis in this study. After analyzing different aspects of theory, comparison and interview answers conclusion was drawn. Both the internet marketing and traditional marketing has their own advantages. Therefore, the most effective way of marketing is using the advantages of both internet marketing and traditional marketing according to the goals of the company. 1. Introduction Profit maximisation is the main objective of most business organisations for which they use marketing as their marketing strategy. Thus they use different strategies to sell their products and services. They always want to satisfy their target customers by creating, promoting and selling their product and services. One of the strategies they use is marketing, which can make a business grow and thereby become more powerful. To find out what sort of marketing to use in different area to achieve high share of market and high sales rate is very essential (Karp, 1974). According to Dayal et al. 1996, marketing can be defined as the activity of satisfying the needs and wants of buyers through the exchange process in a manner which enables the firm to achieve its objectives. On the other hand, Saxena (2006), marketing means understanding and responding to customers needs. Marketing is an organisational function and a set of process for creating, communicating, and delivering value to customers and for managing customer relationships in way that benefit the organisation and its stakeholders (Parsons, et al. 2009). Marketing is considered to be a process of exploring, creating, and delivering value to satisfy the needs and wants of a target market at a profit (Kotler, 2003). The Term Marketing Mix (Product, Price, Place, and Promotion) was introduced for the first time by Professor Neil Borden in approximately 1953. Markets were offered opportunities to exploit each aspect of the 4 Ps of the marketing mix and satisfy their customers needs and wants, as soon as the concept was introduced by him (Karp, 1974). Technology has changed marketing, after staying same for several years marketing has now affected by internet and out lives has become easy. It brings new opportunities for marketing as a new communication channel and has been replacing the traditional medium of communication and selling goods and services. Problem discussion In traditional marketing, channels of communications such as magazines, catalogues, face to face communication etc are used. And nowadays in the internet marketing, internet is used as a communication channel as a part of direct marketing. New opportunities have been provided by this new communication channel which has affected marketing process. All the channels of communications have their own importance but internet is a channel that has developed and is continuously developing which has got a lot of attention from everyone. Right decision when choosing right marketing strategy for a marketer is very essential. For that the marketer should know the differences between internet and traditional marketing and their advantages and disadvantages also. Some obvious questions might arise in our mind that: which marketing approach is beneficial comparing traditional and internet marketing? In the real life companies, which tool is the most used ones? Is traditional marketing left back wit h the use of internet marketing? Is the traditional marketing and internet marketing independent to each other? Author find these issues interesting and companies entering the market will find this report helpful in prioritise their marketing tools and also have clear picture of all the elements of marketing mix and the comparison of internet and traditional marketing. Objective The main objective of this research is to identify different characteristics of traditional marketing and internet marketing. Comparing Internet marketing and traditional marketing used by different organisations in food industry. Also, what marketing tools are effective for the chosen companies in the food industries are to be discussed? The managers of the companies who need to make a decision about selecting the marketing tools and strategies will find this research helpful. They also will find the studies done on marketing theories and comparison between them, point of view of managers that were interviewed and the analysis made based in these things. Limitations The marketing managers of chosen companies are working in UK and their answers are related to UK food and takeaway market. This research might not be suitable for business to business companies as it is only focused on business to consumers. 2. Literature Review Different theories on the marketing mix and also traditional and internet marketing is presented in depth. 2.1 Traditional marketing According to Kotler 2003, Marketing is considered to be a collective process where individuals or groups can exchange goods or services based on their needs and wants. Neil Borden for the first time approx in 1953 presented the content of marketing process as marketing mix, representing the mixture of useful elements for marketing. Kotler considers the marketing mix as a mixture of different instruments or tools for pursuing a marketing plan (Walter, 1992). Marketing is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas, goods and services to create exchange that satisfy individual and organisational objectives. In traditional marketing, channels of communications such as magazines, catalogues, face to face communication etc are used. The aim is to create products and services which sell themselves by being what customers need and want (Kotler, 2003). The marketing mix is probably the most famous phrase in marketing. The elements are the marketing tactics. Also known as the Four Ps, the marketing mix elements are price, place, product, and promotion. Price According to Belohlavek 2008, Price is a Conditioning element to the purchase. In general, except for commodities, price only conditions but does not determine. The price, by conditioning, determines if the product chosen, as first choice, is the one desired. The pricing of services is one of the major factors in competing with other business open to most organisations. By fixing prices below those of competitors, a company will hope to get a greater share of the market, all other aspects of competition being equal (Gubbins, 2003) On the other hand, Kotler presents, it is an important part of the marketing strategy and it sends out a message about the product, company and image. Pricing is decided upon the interest and goal of the company that they want to achieve. Whether, they want bigger market share, maximum profit or possibly a specific position in the market. It is very important job to set the price as it affect demand as the demand and price are dependent to each other. Product Product, or service, is the element which satisfies the clients needs. The product or services generates two types of relationships with the prospect: a functional and a linking one. The functional relationship refers to the products use value and the link with the product is mainly defined by the complementarity between itself and the client (Belohlavek, 2008). Product is the solution to customers wants or/and needs. There are different aspects of product that needs to be considered. Quality, design and function of the product are some examples of different aspects of the product. The size, colour and general design should be considered by the marketer for the product appearance. The demand should be also kept in mind so that what is required in the market should be known and for that research and market study is essential. Service is also included in the product or is a part of this P. The company can provide warranty as a good customer service which is attached with the product and thus is a part of this P. Place Products and services have to reach their customers to be consumed. In traditional market, it was possible for producers and their customers to meet face- to face to exchange goods and services. The product and services should reach the customer in the right manner at right place. The process of moving product and service through different intermediaries to reach the end user is considered under this part of P (Stone et al., 2007). According to Kotler 2003, place in marketing can be about location in the means of store, factory and storage. Also the decision on distribution channels and transport are part of it. Place is the crucial thing to determine for the business. The company who need wide space can chose location outside city which is cost effective. The company who need crowds and is opening new store need to be located in city centre, which is a bit costly but attracts customers attention and possible customers would drop in when passing by. A number of factors affect the nature of the supply chain that evolves to suit the needs of the producer and to meet customer demand (Stone et al., 2007). Promotion According to Kotler 2003, Promotion is that part of communication that consists of company message designed to stimulate awareness of, interest in, and purchase of its various products and services. Company use sales promotion, advertising, salesperson, and public relation to disseminate message designed to attract customers attention and interest. Sales promotion is any form of promoting sales where there is a call to action that results in a demonstrable benefit, whether tangible or not (Mullin, et al. 2008) Advertising includes any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor. In contrast, public relations focus on building good relations with the companys various publics by obtaining favourable unpaid publicity. Personal selling is any form of personal presentation by the organisations sales force for the purpose of making sales and building customer relationships. Organisation use sales promotion to provide short-term incentives to encourage the purchase or sale of a product or service. Direct marketing can be done face to face meeting, mailing, telephone, catalogue, etc. This is one way of building long term relationship with customers. Finally, companies seeking immediate response from targeted individual customers use non-personal direct-marketing tools to communicate with customers. Sales force is the face of company towards customers when providing or offering customers solution in either services or products. Their wo rking process has become from just selling to more complicated task. The sales representatives are the one that bring the needs of customers and the company together and create the mutual satisfaction. (Kotler et al., 2010). 2.2 Internet Marketing Internet marketing has become an important issue for many businesses around the world which have any form of commercial presence on the net. In the early days of direct marketing, efforts at reaching prospective customers could be best described as using a shotgun approach. By packing an envelope full of advertisements and coupons and mailing them out to a large amount of households, it was discovered that customers would actually respond by buoying some of the promoted products. Today, with the creation of large scale databases and internet that systematically collect information on households and individuals, direct marketing has become faster. Incentive-based marketing is a technique where the customer is rewarded or compensated for completed purchase transactions. Similar to the concept of rebates in the physical marketplace, online marketing incentives are driving the explosive growth in advertising and marketing revenues. The key difference, however, is that marketer can extrac t information from online consumers by providing them additional incentives? This information can then be used in conjunction with other direct marketing plans to design and deliver targeted messages (Lee, 2001). Most of the households use internet nowadays via laptop, mobile, palmtop, PC, Etc. The 2010 internet access survey of households and individuals measure home access to the internet and individuals use of the internet across the UK shows that 30.1 million adults used the internet everyday or nearly every day. 73 percent of households had internet access and 31 million people bought or ordered goods or services online in the last 12 months. As we can see on the chart of adults using the internet almost every day in appendix B shows that the number of internet users has almost doubled from 2006 till date. (Internet Access, 2010) According to Hoffman et al. 1995, Internet is a new marketing tool that can be used by companies in order to reach their customers. Internet marketing is defined as the application of the internet and related digital technologies to achieve marketing objectives and support the modern marketing concept. Internet marketing is often presented as a new theory of marketing however some argue that basic concepts form the traditional marketing are still valid. Internet offers new opportunities to adapt the basics of marketing mix. (Chaffey, 2000). Price Price transparency on the internet as it is much quicker and easier to compare prices by visiting companys websites or by using prices comparison sites has made the business more competitive than was on the traditional marketing. Also the main reason of being competitive is the ability to reduce costs of store spaces and staff costs. As already mentioned above this is the reason of internet marketing being cost effective tool of marketing (Hagel, 1997). Online payment is new methods of payment that internet offers. Credit cards are seen as an efficient, convenient and flexible payment method for both customers and companies. However, customers are less confident about the service because of the security and privacy issues. Product Internet marketing is the most cost-effective way to market the products to the UK and the world. The internet leads to faster discovery of customer needs, greater customisation of the products to the customer needs, faster product testing, and shorter product life cycles (Eid et al., 2002). Internet provides the opportunity of offering a core product that satisfies the customers fundamental needs. On internet, a picture or description will replace the physical product offered in the traditional marketplace or in stores. Services offered on internet by a company should reflect the following factors in order to satisfy customers: reliability, responsiveness, competence, ease of use, security, and product portfolio. (Yang et al., 2004) Place New way of distributing product is done in internet marketing i.e. online selling. People can make decisions and purchase any product from anywhere in the world. Allen and Fjermestad 2009, argue that the internet has the greatest implications for place in the marketing mix because it has a large market place. Companies can gain the advantage of the low cost of advertising internationally without the necessity of a supporting sales infrastructure in different countries as they can expand their business form local market to both national and international markets. Internet also helps take advantage of new markets (Chaffey, 2000). Promotion Internet marketing as a promotional tool can give business a presence all over the world. Advertising, sales promotion, direct marketing, etc are the elements of communication mix which can be done with the use of new way of marketing that is internet marketing. For example, websites and email are the effective tools to review the new ways of communicating to the customers (Chaffey, 2000). Companies can encourage their customers to visit their websites and increase sales by sending emails remainders and different offers frequently. Internet helps to inform customers of the benefits of the product and assist in different stages of buying process. Companies can use internet to deliver their messages to their customers and attract them with the help of online advertising. Customers are always encouraged to buy when they see offers or the cheaper product compared to other competitor brand. Thus, sales promotion on the internet and emails is very used nowadays by the companies. This also helps company to keep long term relationship with its customers. Internet offers companies the opportunity to publish the news directly which is a part of public relations. Customers are sent emails to remind about the product and services that the company offers which also encourages the customers to send feedbacks and helps keep in touch. This is the part of direct marketing done by the companies as internet marketing tool (Chaffey, 2000). 2.3 Comparing Traditional and Internet Marketing Mix Traditional marketing and internet marketing is compared on the basis of its marketing mix or 4 Ps. This gives clear idea of different issues that either internet or traditional marketing carry in their tools. Price The cost of supply chain or the cost of distribution channel determines the price of the product. The bigger amount of cost is saved through internet marketing which can result lowering the product price. The cost of product may reach the paramount because of the management of distribution channel in the traditional marketing (Kotler, 2003). Tough competition in the internet marketing exist as the competitors can scan our potential pricing strategy and also our potential customers can reach to the competitors on one click. There is always security problem in the internet marketing, where customers may not feel safe paying online through their cards rather paying in the physical store where they can have more control over the payment process (Kotler, 2003). Product Product that the company offer in websites in internet marketing is just a virtual image where customers cant touch or feel. Whereas, in traditional marketing the product is tangible and customers can experience the quality by feeling it. Customer can sometimes change purchase decision because of lack of physically reaching and feeling the product (Lee, 2002). Company can offer wide range of products via internet marketing but it is not possible or it costly to offer wide range of products in the physical store. There will be more problem of storing and staffs handling inventory in traditional marketing than in internet marketing (Kotler, 2003). Place Customers can be attracted by decorating the store, like some stores does in the Christmas and New Year to create a specific atmosphere. This is only possible in traditional marketing but is not possible in the internet marketing as it is just a virtual image. Even though many of the websites try to create an atmosphere, but it is not as real experience as can be created in the physical store. In the traditional marketing customers have to wait and plan for the opening hours of the store and reach the store but in the internet marketing they dont have to bother about opening hours and the location. They can shop anytime and form anywhere from the world (Kotler, 2003). Promotion Time is money, what people say nowadays. The internet marketing helps save time of the customers and the company by the speed of reaching message to the customers about the product and services and also the purchasing process is done speedy. In traditional marketing it is not possible. Reaching the targeted customers is made easy with the help of internet marketing and can continue the relationship with them (Kotler, 2003). Face to face communication with customers creates bond between business and the customers. The company can get lots of advantages like they can get straight feedback and can measure result quickly. Communication is both sided in traditional marketing whereas it is not practical in internet marketing (Kotler, 2003) A website helps company to present itself in many ways where the customer can study different aspects of the company and get to know it well where as this is not possible in the same way through traditional tools for promotion (Kotler, 2003). A good website is very important for succeeding in online marketing. According to Sunday Times, some important guidelines for a good website for a company are: Keep sites simple and easy to use. Think user journey rather than individual pages. Provide clear information on contacts, delivery and refund policies Let shoppers browse without having to register. Build trust. Comparison of internet and traditional marketing On the basis of theories presented above, the main advantages of both internet marketing and traditional marketing is shown in the table as a bullet points. Marketer can adopt the positive aspects of either approach pointed out in this table. Internet Marketing Traditional Marketing Cost effective Personal Service Variety of products Physical access to product Reach targeted customers easily Quick feedback face-to-face Faster speed and communication Less tough competition Opens 24/7 Atmosphere of physical store Easy payment Secure payment Figure 2.3 Comparison on Internet and traditional marketing 3. Research Methodology There are different methods of data collection that we need in order to answer the research problem of this thesis. The two approaches are qualitative research and quantitative research which helps us explain the phenomenon. Qualitative research is typically used to answer questions about the complex nature of phenomena, often with the purpose of describing and understanding the phenomena from the participants point of view. Qualitative research is concerned with qualitative phenomenon. Qualitative research focuses on understanding the research subject by investigating the results based on direct observations, in depth interviews and analysis of documents and materials (Leedy et al., 2005). On the other hand, Quantitative research is based on the measurement of quality or amount. It is applicable to phenomena that can be expressed in terms of quantity (Kumar, 2008). The aim of this research is to make a comparison between traditional marketing and internet marketing and find the effective tools in these two approaches used by a chosen group of companies in food industry. Therefore qualitative research method is mainly used in this research. This enables the author to explore all areas of the topic at hand and also give a thorough understanding and analysis. 3.1 Data Collection Approaches There are mainly two approaches of data collection. Primary and secondary data collection is the two approaches of data collection and the author in this research will be using both the approaches for the data collection. Primary data First hand information gathered directly from the source, through experiments, observations, and interviews through mails, telephones, emails or personal interviews which are close to the truth are called primary data (Leedy et al., 2005). The primary data used in this study research was collected through interviews. The interviews were done with the managers of three companies in food industry they are: Popadoms, Zaffron Restaurant Bar and Sultan Balti Palace. Interviews with the marketing managers of Popadoms, Zaffron Restaurant Bar and Sultan Balti Palace were done through phone call. Based on some specific qualities they have and all three could give us different point of views on the subject, these companies were chosen. The main qualities that these companies share are that they are successful, growing and use both internet and traditional marketing tools. Popadoms offer mainly takeaways with the finest and freshest Indian food locally (Popadoms, 2010); Zaffron Restaurant Bar offers both service and foods for dining in customers with affordable price (Zaffron, 2010); again Sultan Balti Palace offers tourists with different new Indian foods with takeaway and dining in facilities (Sultanpalace, 2004). The author in this research has formulated a number of questions based on the data required to be able to come a conclusion regarding the research problem. To be certain of acquiring the necessary information as effectively as possible, the interview questions were structured according to the limited time for this research and keeping in mind difficult accessibility to the specific individuals that were interviewed and their busy schedules. Secondary data Secondary data is information that has been gathered by someone other than the researcher and/or for some other purpose than the project at hand. Secondary data could be in form of books, journal articles, online data sources, etc. (Leedy, 2005). The secondary data that the author will collect is through internet and books that are trustable. The statistics can be referred to as quantitative data will be gathered from the website of the UK National Statistics. Validity is establishing correct operational measures for the concepts being studied (Yin, 1994). In order to ensure the validity and reliability of this research, the methods and theories used to conduct this study were chosen from literatures written by authors known to be experts in this field and scientific articles form data bases recommended by Universities. Criticism The empirical data was collected through interviews done with the managers of three companies operating in food industry in UK; therefore the author cannot conclude that the result can be applicable for the whole food industry in UK. With the choice of qualitative research and the mentioned limitations, the author of this research cannot give a general conclusion applicable for other industries in the UK. 4. Empirical Data The author of this thesis will present the companies chosen as examples form food industry in UK. The companies were all chosen from the same industry to rule out the industry differences. The author contacted the companies to obtain information about the marketing conducted in respective companies. The marketing managers of these companies were just able to answer quickly by telephone due to lack of time. However, all these companies invited the authors to find more information on their websites; therefore some of the information presented in this part is from the companies websites. The questions asked with the managers in the interviews of all three companies are as follows: Interview questions: 1. What marketing tools does your company mainly use? 2. Which marketing tool does your company consider most effective? Why? 3. What are your point of view on Internet marketing and its importance for your company? 4.1 Popadoms Company Profile Popadoms is an Indian restaurant based in residential area Farnborough, Hampshire, UK. It opened 11 years ago and offers great Indian cuisine 7 nights a week. The restaurant is well established and has lots of regular customers. The restaurant also has a free local home delivery service and offers a great takeaway service (Popadoms, 2010). Interview Answers The marketing manager was asked to give the marketing tools used as their marketing strategy in the company, which tool is considered most effective and how internet marketing was perceived in the restaurant. The manager answered that the company uses mostly printed and online advertising. For example, the company use leafleting and posts for the promotion and advertisement. They use websites and send emails as online marketing tools. About the marketing tool perceived as the most effective, the answer was that the company uses a combination of traditional marketing channels because these allow the company to capture local customers and reminds them their local restaurant. Internet marketing is an important marketing tool for Popadoms because it gives the company the possibility to spread information faster. Also from the statistics we know that internet users are increasing and ordering online. The manager doesnt think that the success of the company only depends on internet marketing, and there is no such specific tool to success. 4.2 Zaffron Restaurant Bar Company Profile Zaffron Restaurant Bar is located in town centre of Farnborough, UK. It was established in 2001 and serves Indian food and drinks 7 days and nights a week. They have separate bar for their takeaway customers where they can have some drinks while waiting. They have more than 70 seating capacity and serves tourists as well as local customers. They are near Premier Inn, Aviator hotel and Farnborough airport which helps them to attract tourist customers (Zaffron, 2010). Interview Answers The marketing manager was asked about the marketing tools they use for their marketing and the effectiveness of these marketing approaches in their business strategy. The main marketing tools used by this company are according to the marketing manager Internet, homepage and traditional advertisement. As response to what the most effective tools would be, there was no general answer given. It was stated that in different types of marketing they use different marketing tools. It depends on what they want to achieve. The point of view of the respondent about Internet marketing was positive. The manager considers Internet to be very important for their company. It helps them reach the right customer quickly and use different channels. It was stated that the company couldnt succeed as well without Internet nowadays. It helps them to get their message out fast and reach a wider market. He believes Internet marketing helps their business and revenues grow. 4.3 Sultan Balti Palace Company profile Sultan Balti Palace is now in its 10th year and is busiest Indian restaurant in Wokingham. It is in the heart of the Wokingham town and serves an average of 650 customers a week. An article in a local newspaper referred to the restaurant as having Poppadoms in the Premier League. It is two storey restaurants and is in listed Tudor building. Sultan Palace holds 25 seats on the ground floor and 55 seats upstairs in the main restaurant. The restaurant serves a range of tempting and delicious light meals and snacks at lunchtime. In the evening the restaurant is well known for its traditional Balti style cuisine. There is a private room that holds 30 covers that can be hired for parties and functions (Sultanpalace, 2

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Primitive Beginnings in Herman Melvilles Moby Dick Essay -- Moby Dick

Primitive Beginnings in Herman Melville's Moby Dick      Ã‚  Ã‚   Among the numerous themes and ideas that author Herman Melville expresses in Moby Dick, one of the less examined is the superiority of the primitive man to the modern man. As an undertone running through the entire book, one can see in Moby Dick the same admiration of the "noble savage" that is so prevalent in Melville's earlier tales of the simple and idyllic life of the cannibals, even though the focus has been shifted to the dangers of seeing things from only one point of view and to the struggle between good and evil.    Before proceeding to a discussion of how Melville glorifies "primitive man" in Moby Dick, a working definition for the term must be agreed upon. In her illuminating essay, "The Concept of the Primitive," Ashley Montagu points out the fallacy of using the term "primitive" in a scientific context because it is so ambiguous and has so many different connotations attached to it. He shows that so-called "primitive" peoples are neither as undeveloped, uncivilized, or simple as the term implies. However, here I will use the term subjectively, with all its implications, because when Melville idolized primitive man, he did not have a specific, scientific definition in mind. He had an ideal, the ideal of man before the corrupting influences of civilization had taken their toll.    On one level of thought, Queequeg offers a prime example of the superiority of a truly "primitive" man. This "native of Kokovo" is the romanticized picture of the peoples Melville encountered in his sojourns on the tropical isles, whose innocence and virtue so impressed him. He displays his selflessness and strength when he dives after and rescu... ...their interference.    In Moby Dick, that feeling of reverence and admiration toward man's primitive beginnings is still there   in the noble persona of Queequeg, in the whalers and whaling that he glorifies to such an extent, and in the primeval ocean itself, which teaches its wisdom to Ishmael.    Works Cited and Consulted. Brodhead, Richard H. "Trying All Things: An Introduction to Moby-Dick. New Essays on Moby-Dick or, The Whale. ed. Richard H. Brodhead. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1986. Duban, James. Melville's Major Fiction: Politics, Theology, and Imagination. Dekalb: Northern Illinois UP, 1983. McIntosh, James. "The Mariner's Multiple Quest." New Essays on Moby-Dick or, the Whale. ed. Richard H. Brodhead. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1986. Melville, Herman. Moby-Dick. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, Inc., 1964.   

Friday, July 19, 2019

Hamlet Act III Sc iii Essay -- Essays Papers

Hamlet Act III Sc iii This scene is a dramatic peak in which both Claudius and Hamlet acknowledge their respective dilemmas. The King faces the question of how to repent and so save himself, at least, from spiritual damnation. Hamlet’s theological problem with killing Claudius becomes yet another hurdle and he becomes increasingly trapped by his own indecision. Claudius makes his first admission of regicide in this soliloquy. He uses disease imagery, continuing the motif, heightening our awareness of the terrible thing he has done. The King refers to the ‘primal eldest curse’, an allusion to the Biblical story of Cain and Abel. This parallel is apt, not only because they were brothers, it represents a terrible sin against God -- in this case because the natural order has been violated. There is no evidence to suggest Claudius was particularly pious prior to this crime, but the need for Grace in the eyes of God would have been very important to him. Ironically he is unable to pray, for forgiveness, because his ‘stronger guilt defeats my [Claudius’] strong intent’. His intent could also be his original desire for kingship, meaning that his guilt is so severe he can’t appreciate the rewards. Curiously the strength of his language, regarding his crime, is only matched by Hamlet. Claudius is under pressure, both from his conscience and Hamlet’s cloak of madness which threatens to unmask him. Just prior to this soliloquy he was arranging for the removal of Hamlet to England...

Stages of Team Development Essay -- Informative, Team Creativity

Introduction Nowadays, team is widely used in organizations, because team is effective. â€Å"A team is not just a group of people who work together or like each other or share opinions. A team is group of people with a common objective.† (Barnes, 2001) More and more organization tends to work in team (Milliken and Martins, 1996). Teamwork is used extensively, because, coaching team is able to effectively get an extraordinary goal (Mitsch, 2010). This essay will write about the reasons of team effective, Firstly, it will write about the percentages of people want to work in a team and the reasons of choice teamwork. Secondly, essay will write about the team has effective tools to solve the problems. Thirdly, essay will write about the effective thinking of team. Fourthly, essay will write about the team creativity. Next, essay will write about the adverse factors are able to influence the efficiency of team, and it also write about the stage of team development which can reduce the disadva ntages of factors. Percentage of teamwork In contemporary organizations, more and more companies tent to plan their employees working in a team (Kocher er al, 2006). In 1995, Osterman found that 54.5%of US American firms work in team (Kocher er al, 2006). The reason of using team working was that they simply have proven to be advantageous for companies (Kocher er al, 2006). In general, team working made better decisions than individuals, and teams often made accepted decisions to larger areas. Therefore, teams have become important tools for identifying high-quality solutions to finding out organizational problems (Kocher er al, 2006). Kocher et al (2006) designed a decision-maker experiment, the beauty-contest game. They found out about 60 ... ...advantage of team creativeness is not complete proof, effectiveness of team creativeness has widely recognized and accepted. Lastly, essay wrote the effectiveness of team can be effect. However, the five stages of team development are able to reduce the problems effect. Each stage has different solution areas, they are include team communicate and team members behavior. In this essay, the effectiveness of team wrote about problem solution, creativity and getting more profit. However, those are not the all good points of team. Team still has another functions or methods to prove the effectiveness of team. Although team still has instability areas, with the development of management, these destabilizing factors will gradually weaken until it disappears. In the future, team will more and more effective, and team will increase the profit in all type of companies. Stages of Team Development Essay -- Informative, Team Creativity Introduction Nowadays, team is widely used in organizations, because team is effective. â€Å"A team is not just a group of people who work together or like each other or share opinions. A team is group of people with a common objective.† (Barnes, 2001) More and more organization tends to work in team (Milliken and Martins, 1996). Teamwork is used extensively, because, coaching team is able to effectively get an extraordinary goal (Mitsch, 2010). This essay will write about the reasons of team effective, Firstly, it will write about the percentages of people want to work in a team and the reasons of choice teamwork. Secondly, essay will write about the team has effective tools to solve the problems. Thirdly, essay will write about the effective thinking of team. Fourthly, essay will write about the team creativity. Next, essay will write about the adverse factors are able to influence the efficiency of team, and it also write about the stage of team development which can reduce the disadva ntages of factors. Percentage of teamwork In contemporary organizations, more and more companies tent to plan their employees working in a team (Kocher er al, 2006). In 1995, Osterman found that 54.5%of US American firms work in team (Kocher er al, 2006). The reason of using team working was that they simply have proven to be advantageous for companies (Kocher er al, 2006). In general, team working made better decisions than individuals, and teams often made accepted decisions to larger areas. Therefore, teams have become important tools for identifying high-quality solutions to finding out organizational problems (Kocher er al, 2006). Kocher et al (2006) designed a decision-maker experiment, the beauty-contest game. They found out about 60 ... ...advantage of team creativeness is not complete proof, effectiveness of team creativeness has widely recognized and accepted. Lastly, essay wrote the effectiveness of team can be effect. However, the five stages of team development are able to reduce the problems effect. Each stage has different solution areas, they are include team communicate and team members behavior. In this essay, the effectiveness of team wrote about problem solution, creativity and getting more profit. However, those are not the all good points of team. Team still has another functions or methods to prove the effectiveness of team. Although team still has instability areas, with the development of management, these destabilizing factors will gradually weaken until it disappears. In the future, team will more and more effective, and team will increase the profit in all type of companies.